Dr. Hans Sollinger and his team at endsulin have performed substantial research to develop a patented glucose-inducible insulin transgene (glucose inducible responsive element, or GIRE) and a patented method for obtaining glucose- regulated expression of active insulin in mammalian cells. The DNA sequence for the therapy works by sensing an increase in glucose concentrations in the body (such as after a meal) and then, with the help of a GIRE, prompts the injected DNA to produce increased amounts of insulin, mimicking the action of a normal pancreas. However, instead of targeting pancreatic cells, the therapy exclusively targets – or transduces- a small portion of liver cells, which then secrete insulin like pancreatic cells while still performing their liver function.